(a) After the general vision, he comes to certain particular visions with regard to the destruction of the monarchy of the Persians, and Macedonians: for the ruin of the Babylonians was at hand, and also he had sufficiently spoken of it.
(b) That is, of Persia.
(c) Which represented the kingdom of the Persians and Medes, which were united together.
(d) Meaning Cyrus, who after grew greater in power than Darius his uncle and father-in-law.
(e) That is, no kings or nations.
(f) Meaning Alexander that came from Greece with great speed and warlike undertaking.
(g) Even though he came in the name of all Greece, yet he bore the title and dignity of the general captain, so that the strength was attributed to him, which is meant by this horn.
(h) Alexander overcame Darius in two different battles, and so had the two kingdoms of the Medes and Persians.
(i) Alexander's great power was broken: for when he had overcome all the East, he thought to return towards Greece to subdue those that had rebelled, and so died along the way.
(k) That is, who were famous: for almost in the space of fifteen years there were fifteen different successors before this monarchy was divided to these four, of which Cassander had Macedonia, Seleucus had Syria, Antigonus had Asia the less, and Ptolemeus had Egypt.
(l) Which was Antiochus Epiphanes, who was of a servile and flattering nature, and also there were others between him and the kingdom: and therefore he is here called the little horn, because neither princely conditions, nor any other thing was in him, why he should obtain this kingdom.
(m) That is, towards Egypt.
(n) By which he means Ptolemais.
(o) That is, Judea.
(p) Antiochus raged against the elect of God, and tread his precious stars underfoot, who are so called because they are separated from the world.
(q) That is, God, who governs and maintains his Church.
(r) He laboured to abolish all religion, and therefore cast God's service out of his temple, which God had chosen as a little corner from all the rest of the world to have his name there truly called upon.
(s) He shows that their sins are the cause of these horrible afflictions: and yet comforts them, in that he appoints this tyrant for a time, whom he would not allow to utterly abolish his religion.
(t) This horn will abolish for a time the true doctrine, and so corrupt God's service.
(u) Meaning that he heard one of the angels asking this question of Christ, whom he called a certain one, or a secret one, or a marvellous one.
(x) That is, the Jews' sins, which were the cause of its destruction.
(y) That is, which suppresses God's religion and his people.
(z) Christ answered me for the comfort of the Church.
(a) That is, until so many natural days have passed, which make six years, and three and a half months: for the temple was profaned this long under Antiochus.
(b) Who was Christ who in this manner declared himself to the old fathers, how he would be God manifest in flesh.
(c) This power to command the angel, declared that he was God.
(d) The effect of this vision will not yet appear, until a long time after.
(e) Meaning that great rage which Antiochus would show against the Church.
(f) That is, out of Greece.
(g) They will not have similar power as Alexander had.
(h) Noting that this Antiochus was impudent and cruel, and also crafty so that he could not be deceived.
(i) That is, not like Alexander's strength.
(k) Both the Gentiles that dwelt around him, and also the Jews.
(l) Whatever he goes about by his craft, he will bring it to pass.
(m) That is, under pretence of peace, or as it were in sport.
(n) Meaning, against God.
(o) For God would destroy him with a notable plague, and so comfort his Church.
(p) Read (Daniel 8:14).
(q) Because of fear and astonishment.
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Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Daniel 8". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://beta.studylight.org/
the Week of Proper 21 / Ordinary 26