Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament
And you did he quicken (και υμας kai humās). The verb for did he quicken does not occur till Ephesians 2:5 and then with ημας hēmās (us) instead of υμας humās (you). There is a like ellipsis or anacoluthon in Colossians 1:21, Colossians 1:22, only there is no change from υμας humās to ημας hēmāsWhen ye were dead (οντας νεκρους ontas nekrous). Present active participle referring to their former state. Spiritually dead. Trespasses and sins (παραπτωμασιν και αμαρτιαις paraptōmasin kai hamartiais). Both words (locative case) though only one in Ephesians 2:5.
According to the course of this world (κατα τον αιωνα του κοσμου τουτου kata ton aiōna tou kosmou toutou). Curious combinations of αιων aiōn (a period of time), κοσμος kosmos (the world in that period). See note on 1 Corinthians 1:20 for “this age” and 1 Corinthians 3:9 for “this world.”The prince of the power of the air (τον αρχοντα της εχουσιας του αερος ton archonta tēs exousias tou aeros). Αηρ Aēr was used by the ancients for the lower and denser atmosphere and αιτηρ aithēr for the higher and rarer. Satan is here pictured as ruler of the demons and other agencies of evil. Jesus called him “the prince of this world” (ο αρχων του κοσμου τουτου ho archōn tou kosmou toutou John 16:11). That now worketh (του νυν ενεργουντος tou nun energountos). Those who deny the existence of a personal devil cannot successfully deny the vicious tendencies, the crime waves, in modern men. The power of the devil in the lives of men does explain the evil at work “in the sons of disobedience” (εν τοις υιοις της απετιας en tois huiois tēs apethias). In Ephesians 5:6 also. A Hebrew idiom found in the papyri like “sons of light” (1 Thessalonians 5:5).
We also all (και ημεις παντες kai hēmeis pantes). We Jews.Once lived (ανεστραπημεν ποτε anestraphēmen pote). Second aorist passive indicative of αναστρεπω anastrephō old verb, to turn back and forth, to live (2 Corinthians 1:12). Cf. ποτε περιεπατησατε pote periepatēsate of the Gentiles in Ephesians 2:2. The desires (τα τεληματα ta thelēmata). Late and rare word except in lxx and N.T., from τελω thelō to will, to wish. Plural here “the wishes,” “the wills” of the flesh like ταις επιτυμιαις της σαρκος tais epithumiais tēs sarkos just before. Gentiles had no monopoly of such sinful impulses. Of the mind (των διανοιων tōn dianoiōn). Plural again, “of the thoughts or purposes.” Were by nature children of wrath (ημετα τεκνα πυσει οργης ēmetha tekna phusei orgēs). This is the proper order of these words which have been the occasion of much controversy. There is no article with τεκνα tekna Paul is insisting that Jews as well as Gentiles (“even as the rest”) are the objects of God‘s wrath (οργης orgēs) because of their lives of sin. See Romans 2:1-3:20 for the full discussion of this to Jews unpalatable truth. The use of πυσει phusei (associative instrumental case of manner) is but the application of Paul‘s use of “all” (παντες pantes) as shown also in Romans 3:20; Romans 5:12. See πυσει phusei of Gentiles in Romans 2:14. The implication of original sin is here, but not in the form that God‘s wrath rests upon little children before they have committed acts of sin. The salvation of children dying before the age of responsibility is clearly involved in Romans 5:13.
But God (ο δε τεος ho de theos). Change in the structure of the sentence here, resuming Ephesians 2:1 after the break.Being rich in mercy (πλουσιος ων εν ελεει plousios ōn en eleei). More than ελεημων eleēmōn (being merciful). Wherewith (ην hēn). Cognate accusative with ηγαπησεν ēgapēsen (loved).
Even when we were dead (και οντας ημας νεκρους kai ontas hēmās nekrous). Repeats the beginning of Ephesians 2:1, but he changes υμας humās (you Gentiles) to ημας hēmās (us Jews).Quickened us together with Christ (συνεζωοποιησεν τωι Χριστωι sunezōopoiēsen tōi Christōi). First aorist active indicative of the double compound verb συνζωοποιεω sunzōopoieō as in Colossians 2:13 which see. Associative instrumental case in Χριστωι Christōi Literal resurrection in the case of Jesus, spiritual in our case as pictured in baptism. By grace have ye been saved (χαριτι εστε σεσωσμενοι chariti este sesōsmenoi). Instrumental case of χαριτι chariti and perfect passive periphrastic indicative of σωζω sōzō Parenthetical clause interjected in the sentence. All of grace because we were dead.
In Christ Jesus (εν Χριστωι Ιησου en Christōi Iēsou). All the preceding turns on this phrase. See note on Colossians 3:1 for the word συνηγειρεν sunēgeirenMade to sit with him (συνεκατισεν sunekathisen). First aorist active indicative of συνκατιζω sunkathizō old causative verb, but in N.T. only here and Luke 22:55.
That he might shew (ινα ενδειχηται hina endeixētai). Final clause with ινα hina and first aorist middle subjunctive of ενδεικνυμι endeiknumi See note on Ephesians 1:8 for “riches of grace” and note on Ephesians 1:19 for “exceeding” (υπερβαλλον huperballon).In kindness toward us (εν χρηστοτητι επ ημας en chrēstotēti Ephesians' hēmās). See Romans 2:7 for this word from χρηστος chrēstos and that from χραομαι chraomai here God‘s benignity toward us.
For by grace (τηι γαρ χαριτι tēi gar chariti). Explanatory reason. “By the grace” already mentioned in Ephesians 2:5 and so with the article.Through faith (δια πιστεως dia pisteōs). This phrase he adds in repeating what he said in Ephesians 2:5 to make it plainer. “Grace” is God‘s part, “faith” ours. And that (και τουτο kai touto). Neuter, not feminine ταυτη tautē and so refers not to πιστις pistis (feminine) or to χαρις charis (feminine also), but to the act of being saved by grace conditioned on faith on our part. Paul shows that salvation does not have its source (εχ υμων ex humōn out of you) in men, but from God. Besides, it is God‘s gift (δωρον dōron) and not the result of our work.
That no man should glory (ινα μη τις καυχησηται hina mē tis kauchēsētai). Negative final clause (ινα μη hina mē) with first aorist middle subjunctive of καυχαομαι kauchaomai It is all of God‘s grace.
Workmanship (ποιημα poiēma). Old word from ποιεω poieō with the ending ματ ̇mat meaning result. In N.T. only here and Revelation 1:20.Created (κτιστεντες ktisthentes). First aorist passive participle of κτιζω ktizō not the original creation as in Colossians 1:16; Ephesians 3:9, but the moral and spiritual renewal in Christ, the new birth, as in Ephesians 2:15; Ephesians 4:24. For good works (επι εργοις αγατοις epi ergois agathois). Probably the true dative of purpose here with επι epi (Robertson, Grammar, p. 605). Purpose of the new creation in Christ. Which (οις hois). Attraction of the relative α ha (accusative after προητοιμασεν proētoimasen) to case of the antecedent εργοις ergois Afore prepared (προητοιμασεν proētoimasen). First aorist active indicative of προητοιμαζω proētoimazō old verb to make ready beforehand. In N.T. only here and Romans 9:23. Good works by us were included in the eternal foreordination by God. That we should walk in them (ινα εν αυτοις περιπατησωμεν hina en autois peripatēsōmen). Expexegetic final clause explanatory of the election to good works.
Wherefore (διο dio). This conjunction applies to the Gentile Christians the arguments in Ephesians 2:1-10.That aforetime ye (οτι ποτε υμεις hoti pote humeis). No verb is expressed, but in Ephesians 2:12 Paul repeats οτι εν τωι καιρωι εκεινωι hoti en tōi kairōi ekeinōi (for ποτε pote) “that at that time” and inserts ητε ēte (ye were). Uncircumcision (ακροβυστια akrobustia), circumcision (περιτομης peritomēs). The abstract words are used to describe Gentiles and Jews as in Galatians 5:6; Romans 2:27. Made by hands (χειροποιητου cheiropoiētou). Agreeing with περιτομης peritomēs Verbal (Mark 14:58) from χειροποιεω cheiropoieō like αχειροποιητος acheiropoiētos in Colossians 2:11.
Separate from Christ (χωρις Χριστου chōris Christou). Ablative case with adverbial preposition χωρις chōris describing their former condition as heathen.Alienated from the commonwealth of Israel (απηλλοτριωμενοι της πολιτειας του Ισραηλ apēllotriōmenoi tēs politeias tou Israēl). Perfect passive participle of απαλλοτριοω apallotrioō for which see note on Colossians 1:21. Here followed by ablative case πολιτειας politeias old word from πολιτευω politeuō to be a citizen (Philemon 1:27) from πολιτης politēs and that from πολις polis (city). Only twice in N.T., here as commonwealth (the spiritual Israel or Kingdom of God) and Acts 22:28 as citizenship. Strangers from the covenants of the promise (χενοι των διατηκων της επαγγελιας xenoi tōn diathēkōn tēs epaggelias). For χενος xenos (Latin hospes), as stranger see Matthew 25:35, Matthew 25:38, and Matthew 25:43.; as guest-friend see note on Romans 16:23. Here it is followed by the ablative case διατηκων diathēkōn Having no hope (ελπιδα μη εχοντες elpida mē echontes). No hope of any kind. In Galatians 4:8 ουκ ouk (strong negative) occurs with ειδοτες τεον eidotes theon but here μη mē gives a more subjective picture (1 Thessalonians 4:5). Without God (ατεοι atheoi). Old Greek word, not in lxx, only here in N.T. Atheists in the original sense of being without God and also in the sense of hostility to God from failure to worship him. See Paul‘s words in Romans 1:18-32. “In the world” (εν τωι κοσμωι en tōi kosmōi) goes with both phrases. It is a terrible picture that Paul gives, but a true one.
But now (νυνι δε nuni de). Strong contrast, as opposed to “at that time.”Afar off (μακραν makran). Adverb (accusative feminine adjective with οδον hodon understood). From the πολιτεια politeia and its hope in God. Are made nigh (εγενητητε εγγυς egenēthēte eggus). First aorist passive indicative of γινομαι ginomai a sort of timeless aorist. Nigh to the commonwealth of Israel in Christ. In the blood of Christ (εν τωι αιματι του Χριστου en tōi haimati tou Christou). Not a perfunctory addition, but essential (Ephesians 1:7), particularly in view of the Gnostic denial of Christ‘s real humanity.
For he is our peace (αυτος γαρ εστιν η ειρηνη ημων autos gar estin hē eirēnē hēmōn). He himself, not just what he did (necessary as that was and is). He is our peace with God and so with each other (Jews and Gentiles).Both one (τα αμποτερα εν ta amphotera hen). “The both” (Jew and Gentile). Jesus had said “other sheep I have which are not of this fold” (John 10:16). One (εν hen) is neuter singular (oneness, unity, identity) as in Galatians 3:28. Race and national distinctions vanish in Christ. If all men were really in Christ, war would disappear. Brake down the middle wall of partition (το μεσοτοιχον του πραγμου λυσας to mesotoichon tou phragmou lusas). “Having loosened (first aorist active participle of λυω luō see note on John 2:19) the middle-wall (late word, only here in N.T., and very rare anywhere, one in papyri, and one inscription) of partition (πραγμου phragmou old word, fence, from πρασσω phrassō to fence or hedge, as in Matthew 21:33).” In the temple courts a partition wall divided the court of the Gentiles from the court of Israel with an inscription forbidding a Gentile from going further (Josephus, Ant. VIII. 3, 2). See the uproar when Paul was accused of taking Trophimus beyond this wall (Acts 21:28).
Having abolished (καταργησας katargēsas). First aorist active participle of καταργεω katargeō to make null and void.The enmity (την εχτραν tēn echthran). But it is very doubtful if την εχτραν tēn echthran (old word from εχτρος echthros hostile, Luke 23:12) is the object of καταργησας katargēsas It looks as if it is in apposition with to μεσοτοιχον mesotoichon and so the further object of λυσας lusas The enmity between Jew and Gentile was the middle wall of partition. And then it must be decided whether “in his flesh” (εν τηι σαρκι αυτου en tēi sarki autou) should be taken with λυσας lusas and refer especially to the Cross (Colossians 1:22) or be taken with καταργησας katargēsas Either makes sense, but better sense with λυσας lusas Certainly “the law of commandments in ordinances (τον νομον των εντολων εν δογμασιν ton nomon tōn entolōn en dogmasin) is governed by καταργησας katargēsas That he might create (ινα κτισηι hina ktisēi). Final clause with first aorist active subjunctive of κτιζω ktizō The twain (τους δυο tous duo). The two men (masculine here, neuter in Ephesians 2:14), Jew and Gentile. One new man (εις ενα καινον αντρωπον eis hena kainon anthrōpon). Into one fresh man (Colossians 3:9-11) “in himself” (εν αυτωι en hautōi). Thus alone is it possible. Making peace (ποιων ειρηνην poiōn eirēnēn). Thus alone can it be done. Christ is the peace-maker between men, nations, races, classes.
And might reconcile (και αποκαταλλαχηι kai apokatallaxēi). Final clause with ινα hina understood of first aorist active subjunctive of αποκαταλλασσω apokatallassō for which see note on Colossians 1:20, Colossians 1:22.Them both (τους αμποτερους tous amphoterous). “The both,” “the two” (τους δυο tous duo), Jew and Gentile. In one body (εν ενι σωματι en heni sōmati). The “one new man” of Ephesians 2:15 of which Christ is Head (Ephesians 1:23), the spiritual church. Paul piles up metaphors to express his idea of the Kingdom of God with Christ as King (the church, the body, the commonwealth of Israel, oneness, one new man in Christ, fellow-citizens, the family of God, the temple of God). Thereby (εν αυτωι en autōi). On the Cross where he slew the enmity (repeated here) between Jew and Gentile.
Preached peace (ευηγγελισατο ειρηνην euēggelisato eirēnēn). First aorist middle of ευαγγελιζω euaggelizō “He gospelized peace” to both Jew and Gentile, “to the far off ones” (τοις μακραν tois makran) and “to the nigh ones” (τοις εγγυς tois eggus). By the Cross and after the Cross Christ could preach that message.
Through him (δι αυτου di' autou). Christ.We both (οι αμποτεροι hoi amphoteroi). “We the both” (Jew and Gentile). Our access (την προσαγωγην tēn prosagōgēn). The approach, the introduction as in Romans 5:2. In one Spirit (εν ενι πνευματι en heni pneumati). The Holy Spirit. Unto the Father (προς τον πατερα pros ton patera). So the Trinity as in Ephesians 1:13. The Three Persons all share in the work of redemption.
So then (αρα ουν ara oun). Two inferential particles (accordingly therefore).No more (ουκετι ouketi). No longer. Sojourners (παροικοι paroikoi). Old word for dweller by (near by, but not in). So Acts 7:6, Acts 7:29; 1 Peter 2:11 (only other N.T. examples). Dwellers just outside the house or family of God. Fellow-citizens (συνπολιται sunpolitai old, but rare word, here only in N.T.), members now of the πολιτεια politeia of Israel (Ephesians 2:12), the opposite of χενοι και παροικοι xenoi kai paroikoi Of the household of God (οικειοι του τεου oikeioi tou theou). Old word from οικος oikos (house, household), but in N.T. only here, Galatians 6:10; 1 Timothy 5:8. Gentiles now in the family of God (Romans 8:29).
Being built upon (εποικοδομητεντες epoikodomēthentes). First aorist passive participle of εποικοδομεω epoikodomeō for which double compound verb see note on 1 Corinthians 3:10; 2 Corinthians 2:17.The foundation (επι τωι τεμελιωι epi tōi themeliōi). Repetition of επι epi with the locative case. See note on 1 Corinthians 3:11 for this word. Of the apostles and prophets (τον αποστολων και προπητων ton apostolōn kai prophētōn). Genitive of apposition with τεμελιωι themeliōi consisting in. If one is surprised that Paul should refer so to the apostles, he being one himself, Peter does the same thing (2 Peter 3:2). Paul repeats this language in Ephesians 3:5. Christ Jesus himself being the chief corner stone (οντως ακρογωνιανιου αυτου Χριστου Ιησου ontōs akrogōnianiou autou Christou Iēsou). Genitive absolute. The compound ακρογωνιαιος akrogōniaios occurs only in the lxx (first in Isa 28:16) and in the N.T. (here, 1 Peter 2:6). Λιτος Lithos (stone) is understood. Jesus had spoken of himself as the stone, rejected by the Jewish builders (experts), but chosen of God as the head of the corner (Matthew 21:42), εις κεπαλην γωνιας eis kephalēn gōnias “The ακρογωνιαιος akrogōniaios here is the primary foundation-stone at the angle of the structure by which the architect fixes a standard for the bearings of the walls and cross-walls throughout” (W. W. Lloyd).
Each several building (πασα οικοδομη pāsa oikodomē). So without article Aleph B D G K L. Οικοδομη Oikodomē is a late word from οικος oikos and δεμω demō to build for building up (edification) as in Ephesians 4:29, then for the building itself as here (Mark 13:1.). Ordinary Greek idiom here calls for “every building,” not for “all the building” (Robertson, Grammar, p. 772), though it is not perfectly clear what that means. Each believer is called a ναος τεου naos theou (1 Corinthians 3:16). One may note the plural in Mark 13:1 (οικοδομαι oikodomai) of the various parts of the temple. Perhaps that is the idea here without precise definition of each οικοδομη oikodomē But there are examples of πας pās without the article where “all” is the idea as in πασης κτισεως pāsēs ktiseōs (all creation) in Colossians 1:15.Fitly framed together (συναρμολογουμενη sunarmologoumenē). Double compound from συν sun and αρμολογος harmologos (binding, αρμος harmos joint and λεγω legō), apparently made by Paul and in N.T. only here and Ephesians 4:16. Architectural metaphor. Into a holy temple (εις ναον αγιον eis naon hagion). The whole structure with all the οικοδομαι oikodomai Another metaphor for the Kingdom of God with which compare Peter‘s “spiritual house” (οικος πνευματικος oikos pneumatikos) in which each is a living stone being built in (1 Peter 2:5).
Ye also are builded together (και υμεις συνοικοδομειστε kai humeis sunoikodomeisthe). Ye Gentiles also. Present passive indicative (continuous process) of common old verb συνοικοδομεω sunoikodomeō to build together with others or out of varied materials as here. Only here in N.T. In 1 Peter 2:5 Peter uses οικοδομειστε oikodomeisthe for the same process.For a habitation (εις κατοικητηριον eis katoikētērion). Late word (lxx), in N.T. only here and Revelation 18:2. From κατοικεω katoikeō to dwell, as Ephesians 3:17. Possibly each of us is meant here to be the “habitation of God in the Spirit” and all together growing (αυχει auxei) “into a holy temple in the Lord,” a noble conception of the brotherhood in Christ.
The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright © Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Ephesians 2". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://beta.studylight.org/
the Week of Proper 20 / Ordinary 25