Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament
Right (δικαιον dikaion). In Colossians 3:20 it is ευαρεστον euareston (well-pleasing).
Which (ητις hētis). “Which very” = “for such is.”The first commandment with promise (εντολη πρωτη εν επαγγελιαι entolē prōtē en epaggeliāi). Εν En here means “accompanied by” (Alford). But why “with a promise”? The second has a general promise, but the fifth alone (Exodus 20:12) has a specific promise. Perhaps that is the idea. Some take it to be first because in the order of time it was taught first to children, but the addition of εν επαγγελιαι en epaggeliāi here to πρωτη prōtē points to the other view.
That it may be well with thee (ινα ευ σοι γενηται hina eu soi genētai). From Exodus 20:12, “that it may happen to thee well.”And thou mayest live long on the earth (και εσηι μακροχρονιος επι της γης kai esēi makrochronios epi tēs gēs). Here εσηι esēi (second person singular future middle) takes the place of γενηι genēi in the lxx (second person singular second aorist middle subjunctive). Μακροχρονιος Makrochronios is a late and rare compound adjective, here only in N.T. (from lxx, Ex 20:12).
Provoke not to anger (μη παροργιζετε mē parorgizete). Rare compound, both N.T. examples (here and Romans 10:19) are quotations from the lxx. The active, as here, has a causative sense. Parallel in sense with μη ερετιζετε mē erethizete in Colossians 3:21. Paul here touches the common sin of fathers.In the chastening and admonition of the Lord (εν παιδειαι και νουτεσιαι του κυριου en paideiāi kai nouthesiāi tou kuriou). Εν En is the sphere in which it all takes place. There are only three examples in the N.T. of παιδεια paideia old Greek for training a παις pais (boy or girl) and so for the general education and culture of the child. Both papyri and inscriptions give examples of this original and wider sense (Moulton and Milligan, Vocabulary). It is possible, as Thayer gives it, that this is the meaning here in Ephesians 6:4. In 2 Timothy 3:16 adults are included also in the use. In Hebrews 12:5, Hebrews 12:7, Hebrews 12:11 the narrower sense of “chastening” appears which some argue for here. At any rate νουτεσια nouthesia (from νουσ τιτημι noustithēmi), common from Aristophanes on, does have the idea of correction. In N.T. only here and 1 Corinthians 10:11; Titus 3:10.
With fear and trembling (μετα ποβου και τρομου meta phobou kai tromou). This addition to Colossians 3:22.
But as servants of Christ (αλλ ως δουλοι Χριστου all' hōs douloi Christou). Better “slaves of Christ” as Paul rejoiced to call himself (Philemon 1:1).Doing the will of God (ποιουντες το τελημα του τεου poiountes to thelēma tou theou). Even while slaves of men.
With good will (μετ ευνοιας met' eunoias). Not in Colossians. Old word from ευνοος eunoos only here in N.T. as ευνοεω eunoeō is in N.T. only in Matthew 5:25.
Whatsoever good thing each one doeth (εκαστος εαν τι ποιησηι αγατον hekastos ean ti poiēsēi agathon). Literally, “each one if he do anything good.” Condition of third class, undetermined, but with prospect. Note use here of αγατον agathon rather than αδικον adikon (one doing wrong) in Colossians 3:25. So it is a reward (κομισεται komisetai) for good, not a penalty for wrong, though both are true, “whether he be bond or free” (ειτε δουλος ειτε ελευτερος eite doulos eite eleutheros).
And forbear threatening (ανιεντες την απειλην anientes tēn apeilēn). Present active participle of ανιημι aniēmi old verb, to loosen up, to relax. “Letting up on threatening.” Απειλη Apeilē is old word for threat, in N.T. only here and Acts 4:29; Acts 9:1.Both their Master and yours (και αυτων και υμων ο κυριος kai autōn kai humōn ho kurios). He says to “the lords” (οι κυριοι hoi kurioi) of the slaves. Paul is not afraid of capital nor of labour. With him (παρ αυτωι par' autōi). “By the side of him (God).”
Finally (του λοιπου tou loipou). Genitive case, “in respect of the rest,” like Galatians 6:17. D G K L P have the accusative το λοιπον to loipon (as for the rest) like 2 Thessalonians 3:1; Philemon 3:1; Philemon 4:8.Be strong in the Lord (ενδυναμουστε εν κυριωι endunamousthe en kuriōi). A late word in lxx and N.T. (Acts 9:22; Romans 4:20; Philemon 4:13), present passive imperative of ενδυναμοω endunamoō from εν en and δυναμις dunamis to empower. See Philemon 1:10 for “in the strength of his might.” Not a hendiadys.
Put on (ενδυσαστε endusasthe). Like Ephesians 3:12. See also Ephesians 4:24.The whole armour (την πανοπλιαν tēn panoplian). Old word from πανοπλος panoplos (wholly armed, from παν οπλον panπρος το δυνασται υμας στηναι hoplon). In N.T. only Luke 11:22; Ephesians 6:11, Ephesians 6:13. Complete armour in this period included “shield, sword, lance, helmet, greaves, and breastplate” (Thayer). Our “panoply.” Polybius gives this list of Thayer. Paul omits the lance (spear). Our museums preserve specimens of this armour as well as the medieval coat-of-mail. Paul adds girdle and shoes to the list of Polybius, not armour but necessary for the soldier. Certainly Paul could claim knowledge of the Roman soldier‘s armour, being chained to one for some three years. That ye may be able to stand (προς το pros to dunasthai humās stēnai). Purpose clause with δυνασται pros to and the infinitive (υμας dunasthai) with the accusative of general reference (στηναι humās) and the second aorist active infinitive ιστημι stēnai (from δυνασται histēmi) dependent on προς dunasthai Against (προς pros). Facing. Another instance of τας μετοδιας του διαβολου pros meaning “against” (Colossians 2:23). The wiles of the devil (tas methodias tou diabolou). See already Ephesians 4:14 for this word. He is a crafty foe and knows the weak spots in the Christian‘s armour.
Our wrestling is not (ουκ εστιν ημιν η παλη ouk estin hēmin hē palē). “To us the wrestling is not.” Παλη Palē is an old word from παλλω pallō to throw, to swing (from Homer to the papyri, though here only in N.T.), a contest between two till one hurls the other down and holds him down (κατεχω katechō). Note προς pros again (five times) in sense of “against,” face to face conflict to the finish.The world-rulers of this darkness (τους κοσμοκρατορας του σκοτους τουτου tous kosmokratoras tou skotous toutou). This phrase occurs here alone. In John 14:30 Satan is called “the ruler of this world” (ο αρχων του κοσμου τουτου ho archōn tou kosmou toutou). In 2 Corinthians 4:4 he is termed “the god of this age” (ο τεος του αιωνος τουτου ho theos tou aiōnos toutou). The word κοσμοκρατωρ kosmokratōr is found in the Orphic Hymns of Satan, in Gnostic writings of the devil, in rabbinical writings (transliterated) of the angel of death, in inscriptions of the Emperor Caracalla. These “world-rulers” are limited to “this darkness” here on earth. The spiritual hosts of wickedness (τα πνευματικα της πονηριας ta pneumatika tēs ponērias). No word for “hosts” in the Greek. Probably simply, “the spiritual things (or elements) of wickedness.” Πονηρια Ponēria (from πονηρος ponēros) is depravity (Matthew 22:18; 1 Corinthians 5:8). In the heavenly places (εν τοις επουρανιοις en tois epouraniois). Clearly so here. Our “wrestling” is with foes of evil natural and supernatural. We sorely need “the panoply of God” (furnished by God).
Take up (αναλαβετε analabete). Second aorist active imperative of αναλαμβανω analambanō old word and used (αναλαβων analabōn) of “picking up” Mark in 2 Timothy 4:11.That ye may be able to withstand (ινα δυνητητε αντιστηναι hina dunēthēte antistēnai). Final clause with ινα hina and first aorist passive subjunctive of δυναμαι dunamai with αντιστηναι antistēnai (second aorist active infinitive of αντιστημι anthistēmi to stand face to face, against). And having done all to stand (και απαντα κατεργασα μενοι στηναι kai hapanta katergasa menoi stēnai). After the fight (wrestle) is over to stand (στηναι stēnai) as victor in the contest. Effective aorist here.
Stand therefore (στητε ουν stēte oun). Second aorist active imperative of ιστημι histēmi (intransitive like the others). Ingressive aorist here, “Take your stand therefore” (in view of the arguments made).Having girded your loins with truth (περιζωσαμενοι την οσπυν υμων εν αλητειαι perizōsamenoi tēn osphun humōn en alētheiāi). First aorist middle participle (antecedent action) of περιζωννυω perizōnnuō old verb, to gird around, direct middle (gird yourselves) in Luke 12:37; but indirect here with accusative of the thing, “having girded your own loins.” So ενδυσαμενοι endusamenoi (having put on) is indirect middle participle. The breast-plate of righteousness (τον τωρακα της δικαιοσυνης ton thōraka tēs dikaiosunēs). Old word for breast and then for breastplate. Same metaphor of righteousness as breastplate in 1 Thessalonians 5:8.
Having shod (υποδησαμενοι hupodēsamenoi). “Having bound under” (sandals). First aorist middle participle of υποδεω hupodeō old word, to bind under (Mark 6:9; Acts 12:8, only other N.T. example).With the preparation (εν ετοιμασιαι en hetoimasiāi). Late word from ετοιμαζω hetoimazō to make ready, only here in N.T. Readiness of mind that comes from the gospel whose message is peace.
Taking up (αναλαβοντες analabontes). See Ephesians 6:13.The shield of faith (τον τυρεον της πιστεως ton thureon tēs pisteōs). Late word in this sense a large stone against the door in Homer, from τυρα thura door, large and oblong (Latin scutum), ασπις aspis being smaller and circular, only here in N.T. To quench (σβεσαι sbesai). First aorist active infinitive of σβεννυμι sbennumi old word, to extinguish (Matthew 12:20). All the fiery darts (παντα τα βελη τα πεπυρωμενα panta ta belē ta pepurōmena). ελος Belos is an old word for missile, dart (from βαλλω ballō to throw), only here in N.T. Πεπυρωμενα Pepurōmena is perfect passive participle of πυροω puroō old verb, to set on fire, from πυρ pur (fire). These darts were sometimes ablaze in order to set fire to the enemies‘ clothing or camp or homes just as the American Indians used to shoot poisoned arrows.
The helmet of salvation (την περικεπαλαιαν του σωτηριου tēn perikephalaian tou sōtēriou). Late word (περι κεπαλη periο εστιν το ρημα του τεου kephalē head, around the head), in Polybius, lxx, 1 Thessalonians 5:8; Ephesians 6:17 alone in N.T.Which is the word of God (ο ho estin to rēma tou theou). Explanatory relative (μαχαιραν ho) referring to the sword (machairan). The sword given by the Spirit to be wielded as offensive weapon (the others defensive) by the Christian is the word of God. See note on Hebrews 4:12 where the word of God is called “sharper than any two-edged sword.”
At all seasons (εν παντι καιρωι en panti kairōi). “On every occasion.” Prayer is needed in this fight. The panoply of God is necessary, but so is prayer.
“Satan trembles when he sees, The weakest saint upon his knees.”
That utterance may be given unto me (ινα μοι δοτηι λογος hina moi dothēi logos). Final clause with ινα hina and first aorist passive subjunctive of διδωμι didōmi to give. See a like request in Colossians 4:3. Paul wishes their prayer for courage for himself.
For which I am an ambassador in chains (υπερ ου πρεσβευω εν αλυσει huper hou presbeuō en halusei). “For which mystery” of the gospel (Ephesians 6:19). Πρεσβευω Presbeuō is an old word for ambassador (from πρεσβυς presbus an old man) in N.T. only here and 2 Corinthians 5:20. Paul is now an old man (πρεσβυτης presbutēs Philemon 1:9) and feels the dignity of his position as Christ‘s ambassador though “in a chain” (εν αλυσει en halusei old word αλυσις halusis from α a privative and λυω luō to loosen). Paul will wear a chain at the close of his life in Rome (2 Timothy 1:16).In it (εν αυτωι en autōi). In the mystery of the gospel. This is probably a second purpose (ινα hina), the first for utterance (ινα δοτηι hina dothēi), this for boldness (ινα παρρησιασωμαι hina parrēsiasōmai first aorist middle subjunctive, old word to speak out boldly). See note on 1 Thessalonians 2:2. See note on Colossians 4:4 for “as I ought.”
That ye also may know (ινα ειδητε και υμεις hina eidēte kai humeis). Final clause with ινα hina and second perfect subjunctive active of οιδα oida For Tychicus, see note on Colossians 4:7.
That ye may know (ινα γνωτε hina gnōte). Second aorist active subjunctive of γινωσκω ginōskō Just as in Colossians 4:8 he had not written ινα ειδητε hina eidēte in Ephesians 6:21.Our state (τα περι ημων ta peri hēmōn). “The things concerning us,” practically the same as τα κατ εμε ta kat' eme of Ephesians 6:21. See both phrases in Colossians 4:7, Colossians 4:8.
Love and faith (αγαπη μετα πιστεως agapē meta pisteōs). Love of the brotherhood accompanied by faith in Christ and as an expression of it.
In uncorruptness (εν απταρσιαι en aphtharsiāi). A never diminishing love. See note on 1 Corinthians 15:42 for απταρσια aphtharsia sa120
The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright © Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Ephesians 6". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://beta.studylight.org/
the Week of Proper 20 / Ordinary 25