Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Galatians 5:23

gentleness, self-control; against such things there is no law.
New American Standard Version

Adam Clarke Commentary

Meekness - Πραοτης· Mildness, indulgence toward the weak and erring, patient suffering of injuries without feeling a spirit of revenge, an even balance of all tempers and passions, the entire opposite to anger.

Temperance - Εγκρατεια· Continence, self-government, or moderation, principally with regard to sensual or animal appetites. Moderation in eating, drinking, sleeping, etc.

Several very respectable MSS., as D*EFG, with the Vulgate, most copies of the Itala and several of the fathers, add ἁγνεια, chastity. This we are sure cannot be separated from the genuine Christian character, though it may be included in the word εγκρατεια, continence or moderation, immediately preceding.

Against such there is no law - Those, whose lives are adorned by the above virtues, cannot be condemned by any law, for the whole purpose and design of the moral law of God is fulfilled in those who have the Spirit of God, producing in their hearts and lives the preceding fruits.

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Galatians 5:23". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://beta.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/galatians-5.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

Meekness - See the note at Matthew 5:5.

Temperance - The word used here, ( ἐγκράτεια egkrateia), means properly “self-control, continence.” It is derived from ἐν enand κράτος kratos“strength,” and has reference to the power or ascendancy which we have over exciting and evil passions of all kinds. It denotes the self-rule which a man has over the evil propensities of his nature. Our word temperance we use now in a much more limited sense, as referring mainly to abstinence from intoxicating drinks. But the word here used is employed in a much more extended signification. It includes the dominion over all evil propensities, and may denote continence, chastity, self-government, moderation in regard to all indulgences as well as abstinence from intoxicating drinks. See the word explained in the notes at Acts 24:25. The sense here is, that the influences of the Holy Spirit on the heart make a man moderate in all indulgences; teach him to restrain his passions, and to govern himself; to control his evil propensities, and to subdue all inordinate affection.

The Christian will not only abstain from intoxicating drinks, but from all exciting passions; he will be temperate in his manner of living, and in the government of his temper. This may be applied to temperance properly so called with us; but it should not be limited to that. A Christian must be a temperate man; and if the effect of his religion is not to produce this, it is false and vain. Abstinence from intoxicating drinks, as well as from all improper excitement, is demanded by the very genius of his religion, and on this subject there is no danger of drawing the cords too close. No one was ever injured by the strictest temperance, by total abstinence from ardent spirits, and from wine as a beverage; no man is certainly safe who does not abstain; no man, it is believed, can be in a proper frame of mind for religious duties who indulges in the habitual use of intoxicating drinks. Nothing does more scandal to religion than such indulgences; and, other things being equal, he is the most under the influence of the Spirit of God who is the most thoroughly a person of temperance.

Against such there is no law - That is, there is no law to condemn such persons. These are not the things which the Law denounces. These, therefore, are the true freemen; free from the condemning sentence of the Law, and free in the service of God. Law condemns sin; and they who evince the spirit here referred to are free from its denunciations.

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Galatians 5:23". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://beta.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/galatians-5.html. 1870.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

Meekness,.... Humility and lowliness of mind, of which Christ is an eminent example and pattern; and which the Holy Spirit from him transcribes into the heart of a regenerate person; and lies in having mean thoughts of himself, in walking humbly with God, acknowledging every favour, being thankful for every blessing, and depending on his grace, and in behaving with modesty and humility among men. The last of the fruits of the Spirit mentioned is

temperance, or "continence"; and designs both chastity and sobriety, and particularly moderation in eating and drinking. It may be observed, that these fruits of the Spirit are opposed to the works of the flesh. So love is opposed to hatred; joy to emulations and envying; peace to variance, strife, and seditions; longsuffering, gentleness, goodness, and meekness, to wrath and murders; faith to idolatry, witchcraft, and heresies; and temperance to adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness, drunkenness, and revellings.

Against such there is no law; meaning, against such fruits, graces, and good things; these being perfectly agreeable to the law of God, which is holy, just, and good, and spiritual; and are so far from being forbidden by it, that they are highly esteemed and approved of by it: or against persons that are possessed of such fruits; for these appear to be in the spirit, and to be led by the Spirit; and therefore are not under the law, and have nothing to fear from it, as a terrifying, accusing, cursing, and condemning law. The works of the flesh, and they that are of the flesh, are such that come under the notice and lash of the law; and not the fruits of the Spirit, and they that are after the Spirit, as such are who partake of his fruit.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
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Gill, John. "Commentary on Galatians 5:23". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://beta.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/galatians-5.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

Meekness, temperance: 17 against such there is no law.

(17) Lest that any man should object that Paul plays the deceiver, as one who urging the Spirit urges nothing but that which the Law commands, he shows that he requires not that literal and outward obedience, but spiritual, which proceeds not from the Law but from the Spirit of Christ, who gives us new birth, and must and ought to be the ruler and guider of our life.
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Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Galatians 5:23". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://beta.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/galatians-5.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

temperance — The Greek root implies self-restraint as to one‘s desires and lusts.

against such — not persons, but things, as in Galatians 5:21.

no law — confirming Galatians 5:18, “Not under the law” (1 Timothy 1:9, 1 Timothy 1:10). The law itself commands love (Galatians 5:14); so far is it from being “against such.”

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Galatians 5:23". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://beta.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/galatians-5.html. 1871-8.

Martin Luther's Commentary on Galatians

Against such there is no law.
There is a law, of course, but it does not apply to those who bear these fruits of the Spirit. The Law is not given for the righteous man. A true Christian conducts himself in such a way that he does not need any law to warn or to restrain him. He obeys the Law without compulsion. The Law does not concern him. As far as he is concerned there would not have to be any Law.

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Luther, Martin. "Commentary on Galatians 5:23". "Martin Luther's Commentary on Galatians". https://beta.studylight.org/commentaries/mlg/galatians-5.html. Zondervan. Gand Rapids, MI. 1939.

Vincent's Word Studies

Meekness ( πραΰ̀της )

See on meek, Matthew 5:5.

Temperance ( ἐγκράτεια )

Only here by Paul. He alone uses ἐγκρατεύεσθαι tohave continency, 1 Corinthians 7:9; 1 Corinthians 9:25. See on is temperate, 1 Corinthians 9:25. The word means self-control, holding in hand the passions and desires. So Xen. Mem. i. 2,1, of Socrates, who was ἐγκρατεστατος mosttemperate as to sexual pleasures and pleasures of the appetite.

Such ( τοιούτων )

Such things, not persons.

There is no law ( οὐκ ἔστιν νόμος )

Against such virtues there is no law to condemn them. The law can bring no charge against them. Comp. 1 Timothy 1:9, 1 Timothy 1:10.

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Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on Galatians 5:23". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https://beta.studylight.org/commentaries/vnt/galatians-5.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Meekness, temperance: against such there is no law.

Meekness — Holding all the affections and passions in even balance.

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Wesley, John. "Commentary on Galatians 5:23". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://beta.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/galatians-5.html. 1765.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

На таковых. Некоторые понимают это так, что против добрых дел закона не установлено. Поелику благие законы рождаются от злых нравов. Однако Павел говорит сие в более возвышенном и глубоком смысле. Там, где царит Дух, закон больше не имеет власти. Ибо Господь, сообразуя наши сердца с собственной праведностью, избавляет нас от суровости закона, дабы тот не выдвигал нам свои требования и не удерживал нашу совесть в сознании вины. Закон и сейчас не перестает играть свою роль в увещевании и научении, но Дух усыновления избавляет нас от подчинения закону. Таким образом, Павел изобличает лжеапостолов, настаивавших на подчинении закону и не стремившихся к избавлению от его ярма. Но это и происходит, по словам Павла, когда Дух Божий обретает власть над душою. Откуда следует, что их нисколько не заботила духовная праведность.

 

 

 

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Calvin, John. "Commentary on Galatians 5:23". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https://beta.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/galatians-5.html. 1840-57.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

23 Meekness, temperance: against such there is no law.

Ver. 23. Meekness, temperance] Queen Elizabeth was famous for these two virtues. King Edward VI called her by no other name than his sweet sister Temperance. (Camd. Elizab.) She did seldom eat but one sort of meat, rose ever with an appetite, and lived about 70 years. Next to the Holy Scripture she preferred (as the best piece) Seneca’s book of Clemency. When she said, that book had done her much good; yea, said one, but it hath done your subjects much hurt. (Sir W. Vaughan, Mr Heyrick’s Three Sermons.)

Against such there is no law] 1 Timothy 1:9. As for the works of the flesh, there is no gospel. The righteous need no law to compel them, therefore they shall have none to condemn them. The law confineth them to live in that element where they would live; as if one should be confined to Paradise, where he would be, though there be no such law.

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on Galatians 5:23". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://beta.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/galatians-5.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

Galatians 5:23. Against such there is no law. They have so manifest and evident a goodness in them, that they never were forbidden by any human institution.

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Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Galatians 5:23". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https://beta.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/galatians-5.html. 1801-1803.

Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary

23.] πραΰτης seems to be well represented by meekness,—again, towards God and man: and ἐγκρ. by temperance,—the holding in of the lusts and desires.

τῶν τοιούτ. answers to τὰ τοιαῦτα above, and should therefore be taken as neuter, not masculine, as Chrys., al. This verse (see above on Galatians 5:18) substantiates οὐκ ἐστὲ ὑπὸ νόμον—for if you are led by the Spirit, these are its fruits in you, and against these the law has nothing to say: see 1 Timothy 1:9-10.

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Alford, Henry. "Commentary on Galatians 5:23". Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary. https://beta.studylight.org/commentaries/hac/galatians-5.html. 1863-1878.

Heinrich Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament

Galatians 5:23. Just as τὰ τοιαῦτα in Galatians 5:21 (haec talia: see Engelhardt, ad Plat. Lach. p. 14; Kühner, ad Xen. Mem. i. 5. 2), τῶν τοιούτων in this passage is also neuter, applying to the virtues previously mentioned among the fruits of the Spirit (Irenaeus, Jerome, Augustine, Pelagius, Calvin, Beza, yet doubtfully, Castalio, Cornelius a Lapide, and most expositors), and not masculine, as it is understood by Chrysostom, Theodoret, Theophylact, Oecumenius, Erasmus, Luther, Grotius, Bengel, and many of the older expositors; also by Koppe, Rosenmüller, Rückert, Hofmann.(244) It is, moreover, quite unsuitable to assume (with Beza, Estius, Rosenmüller, Flatt, and others) a μείωσις (non adversatur, sed commendat, and the like; so also de Wette); for Paul wishes only to illustrate the οὐκ εἶναι ὑπὸ νό΄ον, which he has said in Galatians 5:18 respecting those who are led by the Spirit. This he does by first exhibiting, for the sake of the contrast, the works of the flesh, and expressing a judgment upon the doers of them; and then by exhibiting the fruit of the Spirit, and saying: “against virtues and states of this kind there is no law.” Saying this, however, is by no means “more than superfluous” (Hofmann), but is intended to make evident how it is that, by virtue of this their moral frame, those who are led by the Spirit are not subject to the Mosaic law.(245) For whosoever is so constituted that a law is not against him, over such a one the law has no power. Comp. 1 Timothy 1:9 f.

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Meyer, Heinrich. "Commentary on Galatians 5:23". Heinrich Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament. https://beta.studylight.org/commentaries/hmc/galatians-5.html. 1832.

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

Galatians 5:23. τῶν τοιούτων, against such [persons]) This is the same, as if he had added, after temperance, the expression, and things similar to these; although the very want of the copulative conjunction [the asyndeton] has this force, Matthew 15:19, note: τῶν τοιούτων is in the masculine; with which comp. Galatians 5:18; Galatians 5:21, at the end; where πράσσοντες is added, which is now as it were compensated for by τοιούτων [such persons]: 1 Timothy 1:9-10, at the beginning.— οὐκ ἔστι νόμος, there is no law) The law itself commands love. [And therefore the kingdom of God is judged not to be unworthy of such persons.—V. g.]

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Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on Galatians 5:23". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https://beta.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/galatians-5.html. 1897.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations
on the Holy Bible

Meekness; forbearance of passion, rash anger, and hastiness of spirit:

temperance; a sober use of meats, drinks, apparel, or any thing wherein our senses are delighted. Many of these are moral virtues, and such as some have attained to by moral discipline, the cultivating of their natures by education, and moral philosophy: yet they are also the fruits of the Spirit of God; such as it doth always work in the souls wherein it dwelleth (though in different measures and degrees): only the moral man thus comporteth himself from principles of reason, showing him the beauty and comeliness of such a conversation, and aims no Ligher in it, than a happiness of converse in this life, his own honour and reputation. But the spiritual man, doing the same things, aimeth at a higher end (the glorifying of God, and saving his own soul); and doth these things from a fear of God, out of love to him, and out of faith, as seeing in them the will of God.

Against such (saith the apostle) there is no law; no law to accuse or to condemn them; for these are things which the law commandeth to be done, and are acts of obedience to the law. So as those who do these things are led by the Spirit, and are not under the condemning power or curse of the law.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Galatians 5:23". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://beta.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/galatians-5.html. 1685.

Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture

кротость Лучше перевести как «смирение». Это покорное и мягкое отношение к людям, с которым терпеливо переносятся любые обиды без желания отомстить в ответ. В Новом Завете она связана с тремя вещами: подчинением воле Божией (Кол. 3:12), способностью к научению Слову (Иак. 1:21) и уважением других (Еф. 4:2).

воздержание Имеется в виду ограничение своих страстей и желаний (1Кор. 9:25; 2Пет. 1:5, 6).

нет закона Когда христианин поступает по духу и являет плоды Духа Святого, ему не нужен внешний закон, чтобы вести угодную Богу жизнь (ср. Рим. 8:4).

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MacLaren, Alexander. "Commentary on Galatians 5:23". Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture. https://beta.studylight.org/commentaries/mac/galatians-5.html.

John Eadie's Commentary on Galatians, Ephesians, Colossians and Philippians

Galatians 5:23. κατὰ τῶν τοιούτων οὐκ ἔστιν νόμος—“Against such there is no law.” For τὰ τοιαῦτα, see under Galatians 5:21. A similar catalogue from Aristotle occurs in Stobaeus, containing χρηστότης, ἐπιείκεια, εὐγνωμοσύνη, ἐλπὶς ἀγαθή, and ending with καὶ τὰ τοιαῦτα. Florileg. 1.18, p. 16, vol. i. ed. Gassford. The gender of τοιούτων is matter of dispute. Is the meaning, “against such” persons as possess the fruit of the Spirit there is no law? or is it, “against such” graces there is no law? The masculine is preferred by the Greek fathers, by Erasmus, Grotius, Bengel, Koppe, Rückert, Hofmann, and Gwynne. But there is no immediate personal reference in the context. τὰ τοιαῦτα are naturally the virtues or elements of Spirit-fruit which have now been enumerated, and all such-all like them; and they apparently correspond to the τὰ τοιαῦτα of the 21st verse: so that the neuter is rightly preferred. Those who adopt the masculine reference explain the phrase, thus: either such do not need the law, or such the law does not condemn (Rückert, Hofmann). A similar phrase is used by Aristotle: κατὰ δὲ τῶν τοιούτων οὐκ ἔστι νόμος, αὐτοὶ γάρ εἰσι νόμος, Pol. 3.13, 14, p. 83, vol. x. Opera, ed. Bekker. Similar explanations have been given with the neuter reference.

1. Some introduce a meiosis, as Beza, Estius, Flatt, and De Wette-non adversatur, sed commendat-so far is the law from forbidding such graces, that it much more bids or enjoins them.

2. Winer and Schott thus interpret: “The law is not against those virtues-it has only a negative power to restrain the outbreaks of a sinful will; but in the fruits of the Spirit there is nothing to restrain, and therefore no law exists against them.”

3. Usteri and Matthies understand it thus: “Where such virtues exist, the law is superfluous”-an inference rather than an explanation.

4. But the simplest and easiest reference and meaning are preferable—“against such there is no law,” i.e. to condemn them. Meyer takes the clause as explanatory of the latter part of Galatians 5:18 : “ye are not under the law, the law has no power over you.” Probably this may be included, but the direct meaning is, that these graces are condemned by no law; and you may say that this happens, first, from their very nature, and secondly, because, as the fruit of the Spirit, they belong to those who are led by that Spirit, and therefore are not under the law. 1 Timothy 1:9-10.

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Eadie, John. "Commentary on Galatians 5:23". John Eadie's Commentary on Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians and Colossians. https://beta.studylight.org/commentaries/jec/galatians-5.html.

The Expositor's Greek Testament

Galatians 5:23. : Meekness is the outcome of true humility, the bearing towards others which results from a lowly estimate of ourselves.— : Self-control comprehends every form of temperance, and includes the mastery of all appetites, tempers and passions.

 

 

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Nicol, W. Robertson, M.A., L.L.D. "Commentary on Galatians 5:23". The Expositor's Greek Testament. https://beta.studylight.org/commentaries/egt/galatians-5.html. 1897-1910.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Meekness. Greek. praotes. See 1 Corinthians 4:21.

temperance = self-control. Greek. enkrateia. See Acts 24:25.

no. Greek. ou. App-105.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Galatians 5:23". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://beta.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/galatians-5.html. 1909-1922.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(23) Meekness, temperance.—”Meekness” is something more than “mildness,” which has been suggested as an alternative translation. “Mildness” would represent that side of the virtue which is turned towards men; but it has also another side, which is turned towards God—a gentle submissiveness to the divine will. By “temperance” is meant, in a general sense, “self-control”—a firm control over the passions.

Against such—i.e., “against such things;” not, as it was understood by many of the older commentators, “against such men.”

There is no law.—For such things law has no condemnation, and therefore they are removed beyond the sphere of law. This is the first and obvious meaning; it may be noticed, however, that these delicate Christian graces are above law as well as beyond. The ruder legal system of commands, sanctioned by punishment, would have no power to produce them; they can only grow in a more genial and softer soil, under the direct influence of the Spirit.

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Galatians 5:23". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://beta.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/galatians-5.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Meekness, temperance: against such there is no law.
temperance
Acts 24:25; 1 Corinthians 9:25; Titus 1:8; 2:2
against
1 Timothy 1:9
Reciprocal: Nehemiah 9:20 - good;  Psalm 18:35 - gentleness;  Psalm 25:9 - meek;  Psalm 37:11 - the meek;  Psalm 92:14 - They;  Psalm 119:165 - Great;  Psalm 143:10 - thy spirit;  Ecclesiastes 2:26 - wisdom;  Song of Solomon 7:13 - at our;  Isaiah 11:4 - for the meek;  Isaiah 29:19 - meek;  Isaiah 42:21 - he will;  Jeremiah 31:33 - I will;  Jeremiah 33:6 - and will;  Ezekiel 36:27 - I will;  Hosea 14:8 - From me;  Matthew 3:8 - fruits;  Matthew 5:5 - the meek;  Matthew 13:8 - some an;  Matthew 13:23 - beareth;  Matthew 23:23 - the weightier;  Matthew 25:4 - oil;  Mark 4:20 - which;  John 3:21 - that his;  John 7:38 - out;  John 15:2 - may;  Acts 9:31 - and in;  Romans 7:4 - that we;  Romans 8:7 - for it;  Romans 8:23 - which have;  1 Corinthians 6:11 - but ye are sanctified;  1 Corinthians 9:21 - not;  2 Corinthians 3:8 - the ministration;  Galatians 6:1 - in the;  Ephesians 4:2 - lowliness;  Ephesians 5:9 - the fruit;  Philippians 1:11 - filled;  Colossians 1:10 - fruitful;  Colossians 3:12 - mercies;  1 Thessalonians 1:5 - in the;  1 Thessalonians 2:7 - we;  1 Timothy 5:25 - the good;  1 Timothy 6:11 - righteousness;  Hebrews 6:9 - things;  Hebrews 12:11 - peaceable;  Hebrews 12:14 - Follow;  James 3:13 - with meekness;  James 3:17 - gentle;  1 Peter 3:4 - a meek;  2 Peter 1:6 - temperance

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Galatians 5:23". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://beta.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/galatians-5.html.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

23.Meekness—The reverse of arrogance, gentle, unassuming firmness.

Temperance—Self-control in the gratification of appetites. See note on Acts 24:25.

No law—So that those who possess these graces by the power of the Spirit come in collision with no moral obligation. They are lawless by doing without law all that the law requires.

We suppose that these lists of vices and virtues were prescriptions carefully prepared and adjusted to meet the case of the Galatians, enumerating the faults to which they were liable, and the graces by which they might best be corrected.

 

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Galatians 5:23". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://beta.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/galatians-5.html. 1874-1909.

The Bible Study New Testament

23. Humility. Not proud or arrogant, but willing to listen to others and willing to cooperate. Compare 2 Corinthians 10:1and note. It is the meekness ofMatthew 5:5and note. Self-control. See 1 Corinthians 6:12and note. There is no law. “To praise these good qualities which the Spirit produces, I remind you that there never was a law or a religion which prohibited these things or that punished a man for doing them!!!”

 

 

 

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Ice, Rhoderick D. "Commentary on Galatians 5:23". "The Bible Study New Testament". https://beta.studylight.org/commentaries/ice/galatians-5.html. College Press, Joplin, MO. 1974.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

23.Against such there is no law. Some understand these words as meaning simply that the law is not directed against good works, “from evil manners have sprung good laws.” But Paul’s real meaning is deeper and less obvious; namely, that, where the Spirit reigns, the law has no longer any dominion. By moulding our hearts to his own righteousness, the Lord delivers us from the severity of the law, so that our intercourse with himself is not regulated by its covenant, nor our consciences bound by its sentence of condemnation. Yet the law continues to teach and exhort, and thus performs its own office; but our subjection to it is withdrawn by the Spirit of adoption. He thus ridicules the false apostles, who, while they enforced subjection to the law, were not less eager to release themselves from its yoke. The only way, he tells us, in which this is accomplished, is, when the Spirit of God obtains dominion, from which we are led to conclude that they had no proper regard to spiritual righteousness.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Bibliographical Information
Calvin, John. "Commentary on Galatians 5:23". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https://beta.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/galatians-5.html. 1840-57.